DECLINING WATER CONSUMPTION IN COMMUNITIES: SIGN OF EFFICIENCY AND A FUTURE CHALLENGE
The paper describes the trends of water consumption, particularly per capita in Finland from 1970 to 1996 and includes comparisons from other countries. The per capita consumption started to decline due to two major impetus; the energy crisis of 1973 and the Wasrewater Surcharge Act of 1974. The latter more than doubled the average price of water. This was soon followed by the reactions of consumers and utilities such as: systematic leakage surveys, more accurate water meters, replacement of bathtubs by showers, developmeni and installation of modern water fixtures, save in hot water use, actions taken by property maintenance companies, change consumer atritudes etc. On the whole, both the improved utility operadons and consumers water saving at households have resulted to the decreased per capita consumption in Finland.