Effektbaserade analysmetoder för övervakning av kemiska föroreningar i dricksvatten
Chemical contamination of drinking water is of great concern for public health. Chemical analyses are used for monitoring of selected chemicals, however no information on potential toxicity of the mixture of chemicals in a water sample is obtained. Effect-based methods are new tools to evaluate the hazard of the whole mixture of chemicals present in drinking water. These methods can be used together with chemical analysis for assessment of the chemical safety of drinking water. We have applied a battery of such assays to measure effects on estrogen (ER), androgen (AR), aryl hydrocarbon (AhR) receptors, as well as Nrf2 (a marker of oxidative stress) and DNA-damaging effects in water samples, concentrated by solid phase ex- traction. Results have shown effects in raw water (AhR, ER activities and oxidative stress). In some cases, but not all, the activities were reduced after granulated activated carbon (GAC), and in the distribution network. Oxidative stress and inhibition of AR activity was detected after artificial infiltration, although not present in the raw water. Effect-based methods are effective tools to assess the efficiency of treatment steps in drinking water treatment plants, to detect emerging pollutants, to evaluate new technologies in drinking water treatment processes and a strategy to meet the regulatory demand on healthy and safe drinking water.