EUROPEAN WATER HISTORY FROM A SWEDISH VIEWPOINT: INTRODUCTION OF MODERN WATER AND SEWER SYSTEMS IN NORRKÖPING AND LINKÖPING 1860-1875 / Europeisk vattenhistoria från en svensk synvinkel. Introduktionen av moderna vatten- och avloppssystem i Norrköping och Linköping 1860-1875
This article explores the origins of our “piped society”, from the point of view of water and wastewater technologies. Modern water and sewer systems proliferated in Europe in the late 19th century, and the aim of article is to investigate into the reasons for the rapid spread of these urban sanitary technologies, and especially the effect on two Swedish cities – Norrköping and Linköping. It can be concluded that British water and sewerage technologies were transferred to the Continent and Sweden as a result of its particular ideology of public health, where technical solutions were promoted. The technologies were introduced in Sweden as surprisingly uniform systems, mainly due to the dominance of a handful of skilled water engineers. However, the cities’ motives for building these systems varied with their differing social and economic structure, status of industry, sanitary and environmental conditions, etc.