PFAS förorening i grundvatten
Aqueuous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) containing Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) is one of the major sources of groundwater contamination in Sweden. Groundwater contamination caused by the use of AFFF in correlation to fire training events was investigated in Kallinge, Sweden. At the site groundwater was previously used as a drinking water source consequently affecting the inhabitants. In Sweden there are many areas with similar issues. The variation in PFAS concentrations corresponding to an annual emission estimate was studied at two groundwater wells. Factors influencing the estimate as well as how it affects the assessment of a contaminated area were analysed. The emission source and rates were firstly studied followed by an estimate of the transport in soil and groundwater. Three PFAS (PFOS, PFHxS, and FASA) were selected as possible substances in AFFF with a yearly total emission of 280±220 moles. Of the emission source 67% of the total amount partitioned into soil and 33% to the groundwater, thus the majority was retained in the soil. The estimated concentration in two of the drinking water wells were a total of 600,000±450,000 ng/L and 490,000±370,000 ng/L, with 66% consisting of FASA, 20% of PFHxS, and 14% of PFOS. In addition, the removal of water from the drinking water wells showed a reduction in the groundwater concentration by 17%.