PUBLIC WATER UTILITIES AND PRIVATISATION IN SWEDEN / VA-service och privatisering i Sverige
Public water and sanitation service (the VA service) have since the end of the 19th century been managed by municipalities in Sweden. However, as a part of the influence from the globalisation discussion this model has been challenged in recent years. For instance, in 2000 the German-based Eon company bought the assets of the Norrköping VA-service (and the energy service) and in 2001 the French transnational Vivendi got a 10 years operation contract for the Norrtälje VA service to the northeast of Stockholm. This paper introduces the very successful Swedish VA model, and describes the commercialisation and privatisation threats it has undergone from the beginning of the 1990s.