Rapid analysis methods for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) monitoring in raw waters
The presence of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) in drinking water resources has urged the de- velopment of simple and fast screening tools for drinking water surveillance. This article aims to validate a quick test kit for freshwater PSTs detection. Preliminary estimates of the limit of detection (LODs) were done for 5 PSPs variants, namely C1 toxin (a “C” toxin); GTX5(a Gonyautoxin); and neosaxitoxin, dcSaxitoxin and saxitoxin (STX) and a mixture of C1 and saxitoxin. Duplicate samples and Blank/Con- trol are used. In total 50 samples were tested plus 7 negative controls. Results show that clear estimated LOD levels for all variants except for C1. Further validation for lower detection limits is recommended if a lower concentration is of concern. Owing to cross-reactivity within the different derivatives, water op- erators/managers should be aware of certain false-negative risks to certain variants. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the toxin profile in source water is necessary for its application.