URBAN SNOWMELT PROCESSES: AN OVERVIEW FOR MODELLERS
The governing processes involved in both urban and rural hydrology are the same, but the climatic and surface conditions in the urban environment are different, hence, snowmelt and runofFgeneration also differ. However, snowmelt is a neglected part of urban hydrology. Indeed, urban runoffmodels and drainage systems have been developed for rainfall events. This paper discusses the interrelated effects of snow in the built environment and vice versa. Problems associated with snowmelt, such as combined system overflow and inundation, are introduced. Snow characieristics, the urban energy balance and runoff processes are overviewed with reference to landuse. The effect of frozen soil on flow pathways is noted. Finally, examples are given which illustrate the need to improve snow melt routines in urban runoffmodels.