Ängelholm’s coast has eroded considerably in the past decade in part due to a period of frequent storms. As climate continues to change, parameters that increase erosion such as sea level rise and storm frequency will become exacerbated. Adaptation measures must be put into place in order to mitigate the impacts of coastal erosion. This study aims to test the viability of sand fences as an adaptation measure on Vejbystrand in Ängelholm municipality by considering sand volume change, development of backshore morphology, and vegetation presence. Two types of fences were put up in the south of Vejbystrand. This study tested for any difference in volume accumulation between fence types and found that there was no significant difference. Eight survey measurements over the course of two years were analysed and compared to an area with no fence. The rate of accumulation was shown to be significantly faster at all four fence sites than at a site with no fences. All of the fence sites have established an incipient dune and gained vegetation during the study period though no notable difference in species richness was found. The results show that sand fences are a viable adaptation measure for coastal erosion on Vejbystrand.
In recent years, X-band radar has emerged as a tool to improve the input data to rainfall-runoff modelling in urban catchments thanks to its high spatial and temporal resolution compared to other radars used for precipitation measurements. An X-band radar was installed in a pilot project run by VA SYD and LTH, ten kilometres east of Lund in the southernmost Sweden during July and August 2018. In this master thesis project these data were used as input data to a MIKE urban wastewater pipe system model over Lund, developed to control the inlet flow to Källby WWTP in Lund. The goal of the study was to conclude whether the X-band radar data could provide acceptable flow predictions compared to measured values of the same period. The results showed that the X-band radar data captured flow peaks that the rain gauge misses, that dense rainfall above the radar itself may attenuate the signal and that after low intensity rainfalls the radar data simulated flow peak occurs earlier than the measured. Overall, the radar has a potential to improve modelling results– if proper bias adjustment is obtained and the risk of underestimated flows after a heavy rain is minimized.
Our cities are extremely vulnerable against heavy rainfalls. This was clearly shown by the cloudbursts that occurred in Copenhagen 2011 and in Malmö 2014. These events was a wakeup call for many. In the present study, an interview study was conducted to highlight how flooding during cloudburst is currently handled in Sweden and neighboring countries. Our results show that a common view is that there is a lack of governmental guidelines and recommendations directed towards the municipalities in how they can handle cloudburst proactively. The reason behind lacking guidelines is partly that the cloudburst issue is fragmented end spread on several actors. A national strategy is necessary. It might be beneficial to learn from other countries experiences, but the differences between the countries need to be kept in mind.
During the spring of 2019, I had the opportunity to visit two waterworks in northern Serbia, in Subotica and in Novi Sad. In the latter city, I was also given the opportunity to meet researchers at the University. Serbia is one of the Balkan countries affected by high levels of naturally occurring arsenic, which in combination with high NOM levels is a major challenge to deal with in the waterworks. Subotica’s water plant has favorable conditions with lower NOM levels, which means that it is possible to reduce the permissible arsenic levels in the drinking water through ordinary sorption. In Novi Sad, you have other challenges with chemical pollution in the raw water, but here they had installed a relatively new development step with advanced purification technology.